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I know that the pH of blood must be constant, but why? What happens if there are too many H+ ions or OH- ions?

The most important thing that happens is that the hemoglobin molecules (which carry oxygen, in the red blood cells) change in acidic and basic conditions, to such that the affinity for oxygen changes. As a result, the blood doesn't pick up enough oxygen in the lung, or it doesn't deliver enough oxygen to the rest of the body.

Steve J Triezenberg

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