Computer Viruses and Other Hazards
Date: May 2, 2011
What is a Computer Virus? What do viruses do? How do viruses Spread? How do I prevent a virus? What are Trojan Horse programs? Malware? Phishing?
From National Institute of Science and Technology
Which is the US government office in charge of this problem and should be
your reference for this subject
At this URL:
Please find the following definitions from paragraph 5:
A virus is designed to self-replicate-make copies of itself-and distribute
the copies to other files, programs, or computers. Viruses insert themselves
into host programs and propagate when the infected program is executed,
generally by user interaction (e.g., opening a file, running a program,
clicking on a file attachment). Viruses have many purposes-some are designed
to play annoying tricks, whereas others have destructive intent. Some
viruses present themselves as jokes while performing secret destructive
functions. There two major types of viruses are compiled viruses, which are
executed by the operating system, and interpreted viruses, which are
executed by an application.
5.1.3 Trojan Horse
Named after the wooden horse from Greek mythology, Trojan horses are
non-replicating programs that appear to be benign but actually have a hidden
malicious purpose. Some Trojan horses are intended to replace existing files
with malicious versions, whereas other Trojan horses add another application
to a system without overwriting existing files. Trojan horses are often
difficult to detect because they appear to be performing a useful function.
Malware is a broad term for software (programs and scripts) that have
malicious intent and is not specifically addressed in this pub. But
Viruses, Trojans, and Key-loggers are just examples of Malware. Section
5.1.8 gives you an idea of what malware refers to.
In paragraph 5.1.8, page 5-6, please find this definition of phishing:
Phishing refers to use of deceptive computer-based means to trick
individuals into disclosing sensitive personal information. To perform a
phishing attack, an attacker creates a Web site or e-mail that looks as if
it is from a well-known organization, such as an online business, credit
card company, or financial institution. The fraudulent e-mails and Web
sites are intended to deceive users into disclosing personal data, usually
financial information. For example, phishers might seek usernames and
passwords for online banking sites, as well as bank account numbers.
You can find "anything else" in the document.
Best of luck in helping us standardize and understand these problems.
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Update: June 2012