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Name: Charis
Status: other
Grade: other
Location: n/a
Country: USA
Date: Spring 2011


Question:
What negative impact, if any, will GMOs (genetically modified organisms) have on humans and plant health if and when they become widespread?



Replies:
In essence, genetic engineering is an end around some of the uncertainties associated with traditional breeding. Instead of a tedious regime of crossing and backcrossing (often with unanticipated consequences), scientists characterize and isolate genes that code for desirable agricultural characteristics (i.e. endowing plants with the ability to make their own selective pesticides, or conferring herbicide or virus resistance). They then deliver the genes of interest to a crop through various methods. One method uses the microbe Agrobacterium tumefaciens (known as nature’s genetic engineer and the inspiration for modern day molecular methods) as a carrier.

What is potentially worrisome to detractors is the fact that these introduced genes typically originate from outside of the recipient crop’s species, or even kingdom! There is concern about any unforeseen effects that may ensue with these novel genetic cocktails. Of particular note is that these organisms cannot be recalled once released.

GMO’s (genetically modified organisms) have been widely cultivated since 1996. Fears of gene jockeying notwithstanding, no substantiated cases of harm to the environment or human health have been documented. However, many argue that the time scales needed to quantify these effects aren’t yet sufficient.

Potential human health concerns include teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity. Frequently cited environmental issues include the creation of invasive “superweeds”, non-target impacts, loss of biodiversity, development of resistance, and horizontal gene transfer (basically gene promiscuity – organisms casually picking up genes).

Much of the focus surrounding GMO’s rests with how they are produced (the methodology) as opposed to the characteristics embodied in the end product itself (is it actually risky?). Does this amount to unfair typecasting of GMO’s? Perhaps. Conventional breeding can be quite imprecise and evidence collateral effects including toxicity, etc. From an environmental perspective, certain traits such as herbicide resistance (ALS-inhibitors) have already been developed and commercialized using selection. These have been released with little fanfare, despite the fact they embody the same suite of environmental concerns as their GMO (Roundup Ready) equivalents.

Dr. Tim Durham Instructor, Office of Curriculum and Instruction University Colloquium Department of Biological Sciences Florida Gulf Coast University


I am of the opinion based on my current understanding of the science that there is no impact on health. The issues for me are more about the build up of resistance in the plants to the proteins that could make them less effective over time. I think the fact that these do away with the necessity for spraying fields with many toxic pesticides and herbicides make them safer than conventional farming.

kvanhoeck


Genetically modified organisms have been produced for millions of years. Recently, the issue has become politicized so that the issue has become a political, not a scientific issue. Example: "Corn" as we know it in the food store is a highly genetically modified vegetable from the "natural" version, maize. When a farmer puts out bee colonies to pollinate any number of crops, those crops are being genetically modified. That's a couple of dozen (hundred?) examples of genetically modified plants. We do the same with animals.

Many diseases are being brought under control by "genetically modifying" the invasive parasites, and other microbes.

Who are we to say to a subsistence farmer in Sub-Saharan Africa that he/she should not plant a seed that doubles, triples, ... , their crop output to satisfy our affluent "morality" in the Western World. Address that issue.

Vince Calder



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