Location: Outside U.S.
Date: Winter 2013-14
How do scientist actually create a gene mapping of any organism?
This is a very difficult question only because there would be so many parts to it. I will try to summarize it.
First, is extracted total DNA and RNA is extracted from the organism by any number of ways. Then the DNA is subjected to a number of procedures where the DNA is "cut" with enzymnes into smaller parts. These parts are then subjected to amplification by special techniques and sequenced by Sanger sequencing or now by NextGen sequencing, a procedure that "looks at" all the pieces of DNA. Special math modeling software combine all the data from these pieces of DNA and come up with a specific pattern of the bases on the DNA molecule. Special computers and statistical software reconstruct the data to present a "picture" or profile of the DNA of the organism. RNA which is single stranded is a bit more complicated but similar.
If we consider DNA as the book of life, then RNA is a page from it.
Stephen R. Dunn
Ass't Professor of Medicine (ret.)
Dept. Medicine/ Div. Nephrology
& Cancer Genomics
Kimmel Cancer Center
Thomas Jefferson University
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Update: November 2011